How To Create Led Electrical Lighting On Your Own

Start Using LED Flood Lights For Extra Illumination At Lower Costs

LED lights have evolved over the years and are becoming more and more prominent in terms of use both in the residential and industrial sectors for lighting purposes. The various benefits of LEDs have benefitted the lighting industry substantively over the last few years, and the versatility of these lights have made them exceptionally useful for various lighting purposes. LED flood lights are now increasingly being used not only in homes, but also in commercial and industrial locations where there is a requirement for a bright, steady stream of light for long durations. The various advantages of the LEDs make it possible for utilization in outdoor LED flood lights, as discussed below:

With LEDs, you receive extra lighting minus the extra consumption cost, a fact which is made possible by the extremely high efficiency LEDs. Super-efficient, these lights are approximately 80% efficient in converting electricity into light energy. Traditional bulbs and lights pale in comparison, as their efficiency levels are around the 20% mark. These lights also require less energy to light them up, as there are no metal filaments to heat us as opposed to traditional bulbs that use the filament-heating concept to create light

Less heat is generated when we use LEDs, making them much more comfortable to have around you. Due to their high efficiency levels in transforming electricity to light energy, only a small amount is converted to heat energy, which means that you do not feel hot when you are close to these lights. And it also means that you contribute less towards global warming, so LEDs can be considered environmentally-friendly lights

LED lighting bulbs

And stand to save substantially in terms of electricity bills. You could probably recoup up to 70 to 80 percent of your lighting bills simply by switching to these type of lights.Well, the initial investment may be considerably higher, however, when you consider that you are using them for your floodlights, your return-on-investment (ROI) would be barely a few months. And you could then save on electricity for the rest of your lights’ lifespan! And when you consider that the cost of electricity rises almost every year, you are all set for even more savings in the future

You also save in terms of maintenance costs, as LED flood light is highly durable items that can last for really long durations. The average lifespan for an LED is approximately eleven years, and most conventional bulbs last half that duration!

Save on replacement costs when you opt for these LED lights, and you can probably even forget about the maintenance factor once you switch to LEDs!

Energy Savings

LED is a highly energy efficient lighting technology, and has the potential to fundamentally change the future of lighting in the United States.  Residential LEDs — especially ENERGY STAR rated products — use at least 75% less energy, and last 25 times longer, than incandescent lighting.

Widespread use of LED lighting has the greatest potential impact on energy savings in the United States. By 2027, widespread use of LEDs could save about 348 TWh (compared to no LED use) of electricity: This is the equivalent annual electrical output of 44 large electric power plants (1000 megawatts each), and a total savings of more than $30 billion at today’s electricity prices.

Learn more about how energy-efficient lightbulbs compare with traditional incandescents.

How LEDs are Different

LED lighting is very different from other lighting sources such as incandescent bulbs and CFLs. Key differences include the following:

  • Light Source: LEDs are the size of a fleck of pepper, and a mix of red, green, and blue LEDs is typically used to make white light.
  • Direction: LEDs emit light in a specific direction, reducing the need for reflectors and diffusers that can trap light. This feature makes LEDs more efficient for many uses such as recessed downlights and task lighting. With other types of lighting, the light must be reflected to the desired direction and more than half of the light may never leave the fixture.
  • Heat: LEDs emit very little heat. In comparison, incandescent bulbs release 90% of their energy as heat and CFLs release about 80% of their energy as heat.

Do I need a special dimmer switch for LED light bulbs?

While most LED bulbs are now dimmable, not all of them are and not all of them dim in the same manner Since LEDs consume such a low wattage, many types of dimmers do not function with LED in the same way that they do with high wattage load incandescents. When dimming an LED you may notice the following:

  • Smaller amount of dimming rage (Typically 70-90% range vs. 100% with incandescent)
  • LED Bulbs may not shut off at lowest dim setting: this is caused by the dimmer thinking the bulb is completely off due to the low amount of wattage an LED consumes.
  • On dimming systems based on X10 or Power Line Carrier (PLC) control technology, LEDs may flicker when modules are communicating due to the small fluctuations in power on the line. 

WHAT CAUSES LED FLICKER?

Mains electricity for residential and commercial properties operates on the principle of alternating current (AC); the process by which an electrical current and voltage is periodically reversed in an oscillating motion known as a sine wave. The sine wave constantly moves from negative to positive values in association with the magnetic polarity of the alternator generating the electricity. This fluctuating process enables high power propagation over long distances, but it also causes lights to rapidly switch on and off – or flicker. It depends on the type of light source whether this switching is noticeable or not. For example, incandescent lamps are too slow to actually respond to sine waves of the mains.

Flicker of LED lights is primarily determined by the power frequency of the mains supply, for example the UK’s mains frequency is 50 Hz, which describes an alternating cycle of 50 oscillations between negative and positive poles per second. The potential flicker frequency in a broad range of simple LED light bulbs is subsequently double the power frequency, 100 Hz and caused by rectifying AC power.

While these fluctuations are inherent in the methodology of AC power supplies, flicker can also be caused by driver or software-related issues.

Electrical Maintenance Courses To Change Your Career

Electrical Maintenance

It is essentially important to carry out electrical maintenance on a regular basis; maintaining all the electrical material fittings, appliances and devices in and around your home. Maintenance enhances the smooth running of all the electricity powered items in your home, while creating a safe environment that will be free from all sorts of hazards.

Home safety is obviously one of the most dearly held goals by most, if not all, homeowners everywhere. A home is designed to be a safe haven for its dwellers, and therefore anything and everything that favors home safety should always be accorded first priority. Electrical maintenance for the home is without question, one of the foremost and sure steps towards fostering a safe home.

Importance of Proper and Timely Electrical Maintenance

When regular electrical maintenance checks are carried out for a home, various unwelcomed mishaps associated with electricity get avoided in an opportune manner. When such mishaps are avoided, it makes it easy to escape unplanned and often very high expenses of repairing, or even replacing badly affected electrical devices due to small problems that would have otherwise been detected and dealt with earlier.

Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) In general, having your home’s HVAC system working well is a welcomed convenience. However, there are instances where the proper working of the HVAC could mean more than just a convenience. Take for instance, a home where there are senior citizens, small children or even a sick person; for such people, extreme heat variations, whether up or down on the thermometer, can result in life threatening complications.Such extreme heat variations would only happen in a malfunctioning HVAC system, and this is something that would have been avoided altogether through properly scheduled electrical maintenance of all its components in a timely manner like say, before the onset of winter or summer.

Outdoor Lighting The outdoor lighting in your home does a lot for your home safety. For one, it ensures that your porches and walkways are well lit and thus safe for both you and your guests at night. The other thing that they do for your home’s safety is deter thieves and burglars, who always prefer to operate in the dark. The light fixtures, bulbs and lines of your outdoor lighting require regular checks and replacements because of the nature of the outdoors. Having a contracted electrician carry out such checks on a regular basis will ensure that at no point will your outdoors be dark.

Choosing the Right Electrical Contractor for Industrial Maintenance

Electrical maintenance is one of the major issues when it comes to your safety and security. For industrial sectors, electrical maintenance is the topmost priority concern from the productivity point of view. To resolve issues related to the maintenance of a colossal industrial project, you must always seek experts, who are well versed with the facts & terms of electricity.

Electrical systems need timely maintenance & constant attention, which is often a life saver & prevent occurrence of serious incidents. Neglecting timely maintenance will lead to frequent faults, downtime, and hazards, which can be very expensive in the long run.

Electrical maintenance contractor is the professional, who provides services & maintains the installation of the whole complex structure. They must have higher standards of analytical skills, so that they can easily handle the old/previously installed systems of every project. Duties & responsibilities of an Electrician may vary & depend upon the contract, which is discussed between him & his client. For complex industrial electrical services & maintenance, you must opt for the best electrical maintenance contractor, because industrial maintenance requires a very high level of professional standards & knowledge to comply with different kinds of complex circumstances that may come during work.

Selecting an electrical contractor :

The Best electrician is the one who you can handle the electrical maintenance issues properly. They are the only ones who have the proper knowledge base & experience to tackle the modern as well as the older electrical system. They help in improving productivity and eliminating downtime.

Choosing an electrician is never an easy task, so take time to find the best one. If you are looking for a reputed and fully insured electrical service provider for your industrial electrical maintenance, give a call to Aspire Electrical.

What is Electrical Maintenance?

Advances in the design and quality of electrical components have made it possible for electrical systems to run for years without noticeable problems. While wonderful feats of engineering, well-designed electrical systems can lull building owners and operators into a false sense of security—right up until the moment the system fails. It’s for this reason, among others, that electrical maintenance is such an important part of commercial building operations.

What is Electrical Maintenance?

Electrical maintenance covers all aspects of testing, monitoring, fixing, and replacing elements of an electrical system. Usually performed by a licensed professional with a complete knowledge of the National Electric Code and local regulations

Preventative Electrical Maintenance

Early identification of problems is a key aspect of electrical maintenance. For instance, should a back-up generator sit idle until needed, it may not start due to a number of factors. Old fuel clogging a fuel filter, uncharged starting batteries, or start switches left in the wrong mode can all prevent a smooth transition to backup power. These are basic problems, easily identified and addressed through preventative maintenance.

One of the major challenges to electrical maintenance is the nature of electrical wiring. It can be difficult to pinpoint the location of specific problems as the system is built into the building. Thermal imaging has become increasingly important in the industry for its ability to identify issues with both electrical connection points and equipment operation. By catching such problems early, electrical maintenance helps reduce unexpected power outages and protects equipment from damage.

What is electrical maintenance? It’s an aspect of building operations no commercial facility should be without. While large scale operations may have their own on-staff electricians, smaller facilities may find it more financially viable to contract with a licensed professional for scheduled electrical maintenance and servicing.

Steps for Proper Electrical Maintenance

With simple maintenance and prevention methods, you can feel better about the safety and efficiency of your home’s electrical system. This includes making sure your appliances are running smoothly and all of your outlets are safe to use for everyday needs, such as charging devices and plugging in lamps.

Remember the golden rule: Safety first

You should never start any home maintenance or repair work without proper preparation and safety tools. When working with electrical items, make sure to unplug the unit or turn off the power to the specific circuit. Don’t forget that water and electricity don’t get along, so make sure to unplug anything electric before cleaning. Never use a metal ladder when performing electrical tasks.

Use electronics accordingly

It’s important to be smart about how you’re using electronics. Avoid plugging in too many things into one circuit, which can overload it and cause a power outage. Be mindful of where you place small appliances and electronics, such as toaster ovens and hair dryers. Make sure they’re not under any vents that could potentially drip on them or are too close to a source of water, such as sinks and showers. Further, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration recommends installing ground-fault circuit interrupters for all of the outlets in wet locations, such as kitchens, bathrooms and laundry rooms. They’re designed to turn off electric power immediately in the event of an incident, which can be a potentially life-saving feature.

Be mindful of plugs, outlets and wires

Treat your plugs kindly and don’t force them to fit into outlets. Don’t try to bend and adjust the prongs, as this could cause an electric shock. Alternatively, if it’s loose inside the outlet, it may be time to replace the cord for a fresh plug. Replace old outlets with new electric sockets with advanced safety features, such as built-in surge protectors. Unplug extension cords when you’re not using them to avoid an electric and fire hazard. When you’re outside, only use cords and electrical items that are specifically for the outdoors.

Schedule routine professional check ups

Electricity can be dangerous, so never hesitate to call a licensed electrician for help. In fact, one of the most important steps in good electrical maintenance is having a professional inspect your system at least once a year. An electrician can check your electric panel, replace damaged wires and test circuit breakers.

COMMERCIAL ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE

If you run a factory, or data center, a restaurant, or any business. You know that keeping the lights and equipment running can mean the difference between staying or going out of business. Most businesses cannot afford prolonged electrical systems and equipment downtimes. The good news is that Can Do Electric services can help you reduce or eliminate un-planned costly system failures do to faulty electrical distribution and power systems. Keep your business up and running with a proactive electrical maintenance service agreement. Can Do Electric Services, Inc. offers electrical maintenance service agreements of all types. We can tailor an affordable customized service agreement to suit your specific needs.

Protect Equipment and Extend Its Operational Life

Just like getting regular oil changes on your car, staying proactive when it comes to preventive maintenance will save you money down the road.

If you have special equipment like conveyor belts, compressors or pumps. This equipment already has manuals that tell you when general maintenance services are due. You can simply tie our service agreements in with those. But you can choose to use a different maintenance schedule interval.

Control and Reduce Energy Cost

Like with your car or other equipment, regularly scheduled maintenance will extend the operating life of your equipment and related systems.

You lower your operating cost because equipment that’s maintained will last longer, thus extending the useful life of your equipment, which means make less frequent capital equipment investments.

Recoup Cost of Maintenance Service Agreement

When you avoid unplanned electrical equipment failures, you also reduce repair costs.

The cost of a maintenance service agreement will be off-set by the savings realized by longer equipment replacement cycles.

Maintenance for Overloaded Circuits

Dealing with tripping circuits in your office? This issue is caused from overloading one specific circuit. In an office environment, it is likely that too many devices are relying on your wiring. Ignoring an issue like a tripping circuit can lead to damage to your electronics, wiring, or worse, cause fires.

Colors And Letters Of Electrical Wiring

All About Electrical Wiring Types, Sizes, and Installation

Much of what you need to know for electrical repairs and remodeling involves wiring—how to identify it, how to buy it, and how to install it with proper connections. If you’re planning any electrical project, learning the basics of wiring materials and installation is the best place to start. Understanding basic wiring terminology and identifying the most common types of wire and cable will help when investigating wiring problems and when choosing the wiring for new installation and remodeling projects.

Understanding Wire Sizing

The proper wire size is critical to any electrical wire installation. Wire sizing indicates the diameter of the metal conductor of the wire and is based on the American Wire Gauge (AWG) system. The gauge of a wire relates to the wire’s current-carrying capacity, or how much amperage the wire can safely handle. When choosing the right size of the wire, you must consider the gauge of the wire, the wire capacity, and what the wire will be used for.

Non-Metallic (NM) Sheathed Cable

Most interior wiring is done with non-metallic, or NM, cable—also known by the popular brand name “Romex.” NM cable is made of three or more wires wrapped inside a flexible plastic jacket, or sheathing. It is used for most interior circuits, such as those for outlets, switches, light fixtures, and appliances. Learn the basics of NM cable to choose the right type for your next electrical project.

Electrical Wire Color Coding

Color coding is used both on the outer sheathing of bundled electrical cables and on the individual conduction wires within cables or inside conduit. Understanding this color coding can help you identify what the wiring is used for and helps maintain consistency within an electrical system.

Understanding Electrical Wiring Labeling

Electrical wires and cable have markings stamped or printed on their insulation or outer sheathing. These markings provide important information about the wiring and insulation, including the wire size and material, the type of insulation, the number of wires contained (inside a cable), and any special ratings or characteristics of the wire.

How to Choose Electrical Wires and Insulation

Resources and description

In this video you will learn about the different kinds of insulation and conductors, and how to choose your own.

The different steps of this short tutorial will show you how to choose the right conductor size, how to determine the conductor’s core and then how to choose the insulation. By learning these three elements, you’ll be able to choose the right conductors and insulation for yourself!

Electrical Wire and Cable Buying Guide

First, understand the difference between wire and cable:

A wire is one conductor that carries an electrical current through a circuit.

A cable is a collection of wires sheathed together.

The American Wire Gauge (AWG) system provides the sizing of wires. The higher the number of the gauge, the smaller the size of the wires. The National Electrical Code (NEC) mandates the regulations for wires and cables that can be used for electrical applications.

Warning

Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for installation and safety. Check to see if you need a permit. Observe applicable building and electrical codes. Contact a licensed electrician if you have any doubts or questions about the connections or if your home’s wiring doesn’t appear compatible with the changes you’re making.

How to Identify Wires and Cables

Each jacket will have information printed on it to help you choose the correct product for your job. A letter code provides the attributes of the wire, along with material, gauge and voltage rating.

Naming and Taxonomy

The NEC provides a system with letters to quickly identify what a wire’s capabilities are. Some common lettering for wire includes THHN, XHHW, THW, etc.

ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY

How to Find The Suitable Size of Cable & Wire for Electrical Wiring Installation?

Whenever current flows through a conductor, a voltage drop occurs in that conductor. Generally, voltage drop may neglect for small length of conductors but in case of a lower diameter and long length conductors, we have to take into account the considerable voltage drops for proper wiring installation and future load managment.

In electrical wiring circuits, voltage drops also occur from the distribution board to the different sub circuit and final sub circuits, but for sub circuits and final sub circuits, the value of voltage drop should be half of that allowable voltage drops (i.e. 2.75V of 5.5V as calculated above)

Normally, Voltage drop in tables is described in Ampere per meter (A/m) e.g. what would be the voltage drop in a one meter cable which carrying one Ampere current? There are two methods to define the voltage drop in a cable which we will discuses below.

To find voltage drop in a cable, follow the simple steps given below.

First of all, find the maximum allowable voltage drop

Now, Find load current

Now, according to load current, select a proper cable (which current rating should be nearest to the calculated load current) from table 1

From Table 1, find the voltage drop in meter or 100 feet (what system you prefer) according its rated current

Wire Types and Sizing

When wiring a house, there are many types wire to choose from, some copper, others aluminum, some rated for outdoors, others indoors.  In general however, there are only a couple varieties used for wiring a residential home.

Romex Cables

Romex (shown in yellow above) is the trade name for a type of electrical conductor with non-metallic sheathing that is commonly used as residential branch wiring. In fact, Romex will be the most common cable you’ll use in wiring a house

The following are a few basic facts about Romex wiring:

Romex ™ is a common type of residential wiring that is categorized by the National Electrical Code (NEC) as underground feeder (UF) or non-metallic sheathed cable (NM and NMC).

NM and NMC conductors are composed of two or more insulated conductors contained in a non-metallic sheath. The coating on NMC cable is non-conducting, flame-resistant and moisture-resistant. Unlike other cables commonly found in homes, they are permitted in damp environments, such as basements.

Underground feeder conductors appear similar to NM and NMC cables except that UF cables contain a solid plastic core and cannot be “rolled” between fingers.

The following NEC regulations apply to Romex conductors:

They must be protected, secured and clamped to device boxes, junction boxes and fixtures.

Support devices that may damage the cables, such as bent nails and overdriven staples, are not permitted.

NM and NMC cables should be secured at intervals that do not exceed 4½ feet, and they should be secured within 12 inches of junction boxes and panels to which they are attached. Cables that do not comply with this rule can sag and are vulnerable to damage.

They are intended as permanent wiring in homes and should not be used as a substitute for appliance wiring or extension cords.

Romex is used for most lighting and outlet circuits in your home.  Romex will be labeled with “12-2” or “12-3”.  The first number indicates the gauge of the wire.  You choices are typically 10, 12, or 14 gauge.  The second number indicates the number of conductors. A 12-2 Romex will have a black(hot) and a white(neutral) wire as well as an unsheathed copper wire for ground.  A 12-3 Romex will have a black(hot), red(hot), white(neutral), and bare copper.  The red on a 12-3 is used for three-way light switches which are covered later

Electrical Installation Training To Learn Electrical Skills

WHAT’S THE TRUE FAIL OF AN IMPROPER ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION?

Electrical hazards can cause burns, shocks, and electrocution (death). The image above shows multiple National Electric Code (NEC) violations and poor workmanship making it a clear electrical fail. We have listed the specific NEC violations at the end of this post for you to review

Although these are simple issues to repair, and everything in this photo could be fixed for a few hundred dollars, that is not an accurate representation of what the cost would be if these issues were not found in time and caused the electrical system to fail

The true electrical fail in this photo is the person who performed this electrical installation. The photo clearly shows that the person performing the installation didn’t have a true understanding of the National Electric Code or didn’t care about the safety risk they were creating. Violating the National Electric Code and delivering poor workmanship can create a dangerous electrical hazard for the facility as well as other electricians following behind. If these issues were not found and repaired by a licensed electrician, they would have led to shorting and arcing which can cause electrical fires or shock and lead to an extremely high repair cost and OSHA fines all while compromising the safety of employees.

Transworld Electric encourages continuing education for all employees. Please contact us to learn more about the specific training programs we offer to employees.

Transworld Electric is a full-service electrical contractor that specializes in a broad range of electrical services including residential, commercial, industrial electrical services, electrical installation services as well as energized and de-energized electrical testing and customized preventive maintenance programs. Transworld Electric is also an Authorized Generac dealer, TEGG Service Contractor and CurrentSAFE provider. We have an unlimited electrical licensed in South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia. You can trust that our electricians will be qualified with the training and experience to handle all your electrical needs.

Choosing and using an electrician

For all our celebrated national love of DIY, when it comes to tackling the electrics, most of us are wise enough to call in the professionals. According to the Electrical Contractor’s Association (ECA), a recent report showed that almost three-quarters of homeowners would not attempt electrical jobs themselves, which means there’s a lot of work out there for a skilled electrician.

Unfortunately there are also a lot of lucrative opportunities for unscrupulous unskilled electricians as well. Incredibly, there is no statutory requirement for electrical contractors to be qualified, so you need to make very sure that you choose someone who is not going to leave you living in a time bomb. As the National Inspection Council for Electrical Installation Contracting (NICEIC) points out, “It’s easy to make an electrical circuit work – it’s far more demanding to make the circuit work safely.”

If you’re having electrical work done, it’s often going to be part of general building work, in which case your chosen builder will probably have a favourite contractor. The Federation of Master Builders (FMB), which has a rigorous vetting procedure and a useful website recommends you take your builder’s advice, as long as you’re generally happy with their credentials.

Electrical installation design methodology

Range of low-voltage extends from 0 V to 1 000 V in a.c. and from 0 V to 1 500V in d.c. One of the first decision is the selection of type of current between the alternative current which corresponds to the most common type of current through out the world and the direct current. Then designers have to select the most appropriate rated voltage within these ranges of voltages. When connected to a LV public network, the type of current and the rated voltage are already selected and imposed by the Utility.

Compliance with national regulations is then the second priority of the designers of electrical installation. Regulations may be based on national or international standards such as the IEC 60364 series.

Selection of equipment complying with national or international product standards and appropriate verification of the completed installation is a powerful mean for providing a safe installation with the expected quality. Defining and complying with the verification and testing of the electrical installation at its completion as well as periodic time will guarantee the safety and the quality of this installation all along its life cycle. Conformity of equipment according to the appropriate product standards used within the installation is also of prime importance for the level of safety and quality.

A review of all applications needing to be supplied with electricity is to be done. Any possible extensions or modifications during the whole life of the electrical installation are to be considered. Such a review aimed to estimate the current flowing in each circuit of the installation and the power supplies needed.

The total current or power demand can be calculated from the data relative to the location and power of each load, together with the knowledge of the operating modes(steady state demand, starting conditions, non simultaneous operation, etc.)

How electricians choose the most suitable protection devices

There are at least four main issues electricians must take care off very carefully when choosing the most suitable protection devices. Of course, there are dozen of other issues, but let’s try to define the most important ones from the aspect of protection: short circuits, overloads, earth faults and surges.

Shorts circuits

This is certainly one of the most tricky issues for electricians designing electrical installations. For this purpose, he must ensure good co-ordination of protection devices

To increase availability of a feeder, we recommend that you supply it as far upstream as possible (near the source) to prevent tripping a protection device for another item of equipment.

On networks with high availability, use of an automatic resetting device may be justified if discrimination is partial or if a short circuit can be eliminated naturally (this is rare). This technique is used in high voltage but seldom in low voltage: a rodent or crawling animal causing a fault leads in most cases to a permanent short circuit fault.

Overloads

The overload current is seen by the circuit breakers upstream of the faulty load. To prevent tripping of these protection devices

Electric Department lighting and electrical equipment

ANMAR has specialized in electric industry for over twenty years. Electric Department offers cables and wires, lighting, electrical installation equipment, modular apparatus and automation, switchboard’s cabinets, power and hand tools. Among ANMAR’s suppliers there are Philips, Eaton, Legrand, Siemens, Haupa and many more. All available products are high-quality and can be bought at a good price. Experienced staff is always ready to help customers to choose best electrical equipment.

Cables and wires

Cable and wires make the transfer of electrical signals possible. Extensive range of cables and wires make them suitable for all types of application. There are installation wires, control cables, power cables, medium and high voltage cables and many more.

Lighting

Every house or garden needs good lighting. Thanks to wide range of lighting every customer can choose the best product with suitable colour or shape. Among modern lighting there are classic lamps or very ornamental whereas modern light bulbs are energy-saving and durable.

Electrical installation equipment

Electrical installation equipment – switches, dimmers, sockets – is a very important part of the house’s design. It should be functional but also aesthetic. It is manufactured from various materials, for example metal, glass or wood

Modular apparatus and automation

Modular apparatus protects electrical installations in buildings from for example overvoltage. It can also control and measure. The elements of automation such as controllers or sensors are used in industry and construction sectors where there is need to make processes autimatic.